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Childhood Diseases

In Pediatric

Childhood Diseases 



Thanks to vaccination, some contagious diseases are very rare these days, though some might still persist. Vaccines do not exist for every disease, and even those that do exist are sometimes not 100% effective.



Whooping cough, scarlet fever, roseola, measles, German measles (rubella), mumps, chicken pox and , impetigo: Symptoms and treatments

Disease Incubation Duration Treatment Symptoms 

Whooping Cough 

6 to 14 days 6 to 8 weeks

Vaccine available (prevention)

See a doctor because your child may need antibiotics.

Avoid exposure to smoke.

The first 10 days: runny nose, red eyes and mild fever.

Severe coughing that can happen up to a hundred times a day.

The name whooping cough comes from the whooping sound the affected person can make when trying to catch their breath after coughing. 

Scarlet Fever 

3 to 5 days 8 to 15 days

See a doctor because your child may need antibiotics.

Give acetaminophen to reduce fever.


Weakness feeling



Abdominal pains, vomiting

Whitish coating on the tongue

Pain and burning sensation in the throat

Swollen ganglions under the jaw

Appearance of small red spots, usually starting on the neck, behind the knees, in the armpits and elbows before spreading to all limbs and the face area

Dry, burning rough skin 


5 to 15 days Approximately 7 days

Give acetaminophen to reduce fever.

Have child drink plenty of fluids.

High fever (39°C-40°C) for several days

Digestive problems and episodes of diarrhea  

Some swelling around the eyes and eyelids

Swollen glands in the neck

Three to five days after symptoms appear, the fever drops rapidly that coincides with the appearance of the rash, the main sign of the disease.


7 to 14 days 7 to 10 days

Vaccine available (prevention)

Give acetaminophen or ibuprophen to reduce fever.

Have child drink plenty of fluids. 

High fever (39°C-40°C)

Red rash that starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body.

Red, watery eyes

German Measles (Rubella)

(Women in their childbearing years should ensure that they have been vaccinated to avoid adverse effects on developing babies)

14 to 21 days 7 to 10 days

Vaccine available (prevention)

Give acetaminophen or ibuprophen to reduce fever.

Rest, plenty of fluids

Offer medication to relieve itching as needed 

Appearance – on face and neck – of small red or pink spots. May be itchy.

Benign conjunctivitis (red eyes)

Runny nose


More than half of those infected with the virus have no symptoms. 

Chicken Pox 

11 to 21 days 7 to 10 days

Vaccine available (prevention)

Carefully clean spots with soap. Avoid removing scabs.

Put mittens on small children to prevent scratching.

Cut fingernails.

Apply damp compresses.

Change sheets daily.

Liquids, bathe in colloidal oatmeal or baking soda, calamine lotion, Aveeno. (insérer lien vers produits)

Give acetaminophen or an oral antihistamine. 

Itchy rash that can spread to the entire body (very itchy red bumps that turn into tear-shaped blisters).

Symptoms similar to flu (fatigue, slight headache, fever, chills, muscular and articular pain). 

Fifth Disease 

4 to14 days 3 weeks maximum

There is no cure for the disease, which should clear up by itself.

Give acetaminophen to reduce fever.

Apply calamine lotion or scent-free cream to sooth itching as needed. 

Symptoms similar to a cold (low fever, headache, congested or runny nose). Also abdominal pain (nausea and diarrhea).

Bright red rash on the cheeks.

After 1 to 4 days, a reddish rash appears on the trunk and arms then spreads to the rest of the body.


2 to 6 days Return to normal after 10 to 20 minutes, but repeating episodes are possible.

During the first episode, see a doctor to identify the cough.

Reassure the child.

Open the hot water in the bathroom to create steam and have the child inhale it.

Keep your child in an upright position to facilitate breathing.

See a doctor if your child has a high fever (over 39oC) or if the situation has worsened after 15 minutes.

Symptoms similar to a cold (low fever, headache, congested or runny nose).

Redness and swelling of the surface of the throat and larynx.

Hoarseness and cough similar to barking. Usually worse at night.

One may have difficulty breathing and breathing may become rapid and noisy. Activities that accelerate your child’s breathing (even crying or excitement) may give the impression that your child’s condition has worsened.


Very contagious 7 to 10 days

For localized lesions, a pharmacist can recommend a topical agent.

In the case of strange or widespread lesions, see a doctor: antibiotics are required.

Do not share washcloths or towels with the infected person.

Clean lesions with moist compresses or a gentle soap for 15 minutes, 3 to 4 times a day.

Cover lesions with sterile gauze.

Crusted Impetigo 

The most common form involved in 70% of cases. Characterised by the appearance of somewhat swollen red blisters that burst in a few days.

Bullous Impetigo 

Characterised by the appearance of blisters 1 to 2 cm in diameter that burst in a few days, leaving areas without skin.  

Reducing fever


  • Keep your child cool, but have a blanket handy just in case.
  • Make your child drink plenty of liquids.
  • Maintain room temperature at around 20oC


You do not need to give your child a cool or cold bath.

Do not rub your child with rubbing alcohol.


It is not always necessary to give medication to reduce your child’s fever. However, if they are in pain, acetaminophen is recommended because it is well tolerated and provides relief.


Doses of medication for pain and fever 


Doses of acetaminophen (Tempra®, Tylenol® or other brands) and ibuprofen (Advil®, Motrin®) are calculated according to your child’s weight. Talk to your pharmacist to determine the appropriate dose for your child.


What not to do if your child is sick


Do not give aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) to children under 16. Its’ use with viral infections has been associated to the appearance of Reye’s syndrome that can damage the liver and brain.  


Pharmacy services


Don’t hesitate to talk to your Accès pharma affiliated-pharmacist who can provide you with information about children’s diseases.


 To download the PDF brochure, click here. 

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